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TAPTOE – Tackling And Preventing The Opioid Epidemic, is a research consortium that is part of the Dutch National Research Agenda. The research focuses on the entire trajectory from prescribing opioids to long term use and their tapering.

Within the TAPTOE consortium universities, institutions and policy makers work together since 2018 in order to prevent a possible opioid problem in the Netherlands.

All publications will be linked here.


  • Davies, L. E. M., Koster, E. S., Damen, K. F., Beurmanjer, H., van Dam, V. W., Bouvy, M. L., & Schellekens, A. F. (2023). Patients’ perspectives on tapering programmes for prescription opioid use disorder: a qualitative study. BMJ open, 13(12), e075246.
  • van Dam, C. J., van der Schrier, R., van Velzen, M., van Lemmen, M., Simons, P., Kuijpers, K. W. K., Jansen, S., Kowal, M. A., Olofsen, E., Kramers, C., Dahan, A., & Niesters, M. (2023). Inhaled Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not enhance oxycodone-induced respiratory depression: randomised controlled trial in healthy volunteers. British journal of anaesthesia, 130(4), 485–493.
  • van Dam, C. J., van Velzen, M., Kramers, C., Schellekens, A., Olofsen, E., Niesters, M., & Dahan, A. (2023). Cannabis-opioid interaction in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain: an open-label, proof of concept study with randomization between treatment groups: cannabis, oxycodone or cannabis/oxycodone combination-the SPIRAL study. Trials, 24(1), 64.
  • Kalkman, G. A., Kramers, C., van Dongen, R. T., Schers, H. J., van Boekel, R. L. M., Bos, J. M., Hek, K., Schellekens, A. F. A., & Atsma, F. (2023). Practice variation in opioid prescribing for non-cancer pain in Dutch primary care: A retrospective database study. PloS one, 18(2), e0282222.
  • van der Hoorn, M. M. C., Kalkman, G. A., Weesie, Y. M., Atsma, F., & Schellekens, A. (2023). Psychiatric risk factors for chronic high-dose opioid prescribing: register-based cohort study. BJPsych open, 9(3), e74.
  • Davies, L. E. M., Koster, E. S., Damen, K. F. M., Beurmanjer, H., Schellekens, A. F. A., & Bouvy, M. L. (2023). Patients’ Perspectives on the Development of Prescription Opioid Use Disorder in Patients with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain. European addiction research, 29(2), 141–149.
  • Jansen-Groot Koerkamp, E. A. W., de Kleijn, L., Fakhry, R., Chiarotto, A., Heringa, M., Rijkels-Otters, H. J. B. M., Blom, J. W., Numans, M. E., Koes, B. W., & Bouvy, M. L. (2023). Pragmatic Delphi study aimed at determining practical components for a tool designed to assist Dutch primary care-givers in opioid deprescribing for non-cancer pain. Family practice, cmad058. Advance online publication.
  • Ellerbroek, H., Hanssen, I., Lathouwers, K., Cillessen, L., Dekkers, S., Veldman, S. E., van den Heuvel, S. A. S., Speckens, A. E. M., & Schellekens, A. F. A. (2023). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for chronic noncancer pain and prescription opioid use disorder: A qualitative pilot study of its feasibility and the perceived process of change. Brain and behavior, 13(7), e3005.
  • (Dutch) Kruijtbosch, M., Jansen-Groot Koerkamp, E., van Thiel, G., Numans, M., Heringa, M., & Bouvy, M. (2023). Opioïdafhankelijke patiënt met twee voorschrijvers [Opioid dependent patient with two prescribers]. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167, D7354.

Related research – TAPTOE collaboration:

  • van Brug, H. E., Nelissen, R. G. H. H., Rosendaal, F. R., van Steenbergen, L. N., van Dorp, E. L. A., Bouvy, M. L., Dahan, A., & Gademan, M. G. J. (2023). Out-of-hospital opioid prescriptions after knee and hip arthroplasty: prescribers and the first prescribed opioid. British journal of anaesthesia, 130(4), 459–467.
  • Weesie, Y. M., van Dijk, L., Bouvy, M. L., & Hek, K. (2023). Immediate release fentanyl in general practices: Mostly off-label prescribing. The European journal of general practice, 29(1), 2165644.
  • van Brug, H. E., Nelissen, R. G. H. H., Rosendaal, F. R., van Dorp, E. L. A., Bouvy, M. L., Dahan, A., & Gademan, M. G. J. (2023). What Changes Have Occurred in Opioid Prescriptions and the Prescribers of Opioids Before TKA and THA? A Large National Registry Study. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 481(9), 1716–1728.
  • van Welie, R. F., van Welie, F. C., de Vries Lentsch, S., Dahan, A., van Velzen, M., & Terwindt, G. M. (2023). Characterizing opioid use in a Dutch cohort with migraine. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, 43(5), 3331024231174160.
  • Wuyts, S. C. M., Torensma, B., Schellekens, A. F. A., & Kramers, C. K. (2023). Opioid Analgesics after Bariatric Surgery: A Scoping Review to Evaluate Physiological Risk Factors for Opioid-Related Harm. Journal of clinical medicine, 12(13), 4296.
  • Hellinga, M., Algera, M. H., Olofsen, E., van der Schrier, R., Sarton, E., van Velzen, M., Dahan, A., & Niesters, M. (2023). Oral Oxycodone-Induced Respiratory Depression During Normocapnia and Hypercapnia: A Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling Study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 113(5), 1080–1088.
  • Meissner, K., Dahan, A., Olofsen, E., Göpfert, C., Blood, J., Wieditz, J., & Kharasch, E. D. (2023). Morphine and Hydromorphone Effects, Side Effects, and Variability: A Crossover Study in Human Volunteers. Anesthesiology, 139(1), 16–34.
  • van Lemmen, M., Florian, J., Li, Z., van Velzen, M., van Dorp, E., Niesters, M., Sarton, E., Olofsen, E., van der Schrier, R., Strauss, D. G., & Dahan, A. (2023). Opioid Overdose: Limitations in Naloxone Reversal of Respiratory Depression and Prevention of Cardiac Arrest. Anesthesiology, 139(3), 342–353.
  • van Lemmen, M., van der Schrier, R., Dahan, A., van Velzen, M., Sarton, E., & Niesters, M. (2023). Pharmacology of viable mechanism agnostic respiratory stimulants for the reversal of drug-induced respiratory depression in humans. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 1-9.


  • Dahan, A., van Lemmen, M., Jansen, S., Simons, P., & van der Schrier, R. (2022). Buprenorphine: a treatment and cause of opioid-induced respiratory depression. British Journal of Anaesthesia128(3), 402-404:
  • Veldman, S., van Beek, M., van Rijswijk, S., Ellerbroek, H., Timmerman, H., van der Wal, S., … & Schellekens, A. (2022). Effects of opioid rotation to buprenorphine/naloxone on pain, pain thresholds, pain tolerance, and quality of life in patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder. Pain163(5), 955-963:
  • Bedene, A., Lijfering, W.M., Sesmu Arbous, M., Rosendaal, F.R., Dahan, A., van Dorp, E.L.A. (2022). Association between prescription opioid use and unplanned intensive care unit admission and mortality in the adult population of the Netherlands: a registry study. British Journal of Anaesthesia:, 29(2):254-262.: 
  • Kalkman, G. A., van den Brink, W., Pierce, M., Atsma, F., Vissers, K. C., Schers, H. J., … & Schellekens, A. F. (2022). Monitoring Opioids in Europe: The Need for Shared Definitions and Measuring Drivers of Opioid Use and Related Harms. European Addiction Research 28(3), 231-240.:
  • Bedene, A., Dahan, A., Rosendaal, F.R., van Dorp, E.L.A. (2022). Opioid epidemic: lessons learned and updated recommendations for misuse involving prescription versus non-prescription opioids. Expert Review Of Clinicial Pharmacology, 1-14.:
  • Ellerbroek, H., van den Heuvel, S. A. S., Dahan, A., Timmerman, H., Kramers, C., & Schellekens, A. F. A. (2022). Buprenorphine/naloxone versus methadone opioid rotation in patients with prescription opioid use disorder and chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Addiction science & clinical practice, 17(1), 47.

Related research – TAPTOE collaboration:

  • van der Schrier, R., Dahan, J. D., Boon, M., Sarton, E., van Velzen, M., Niesters, M., & Dahan, A. (2022). Advances in Reversal Strategies of Opioid-induced Respiratory Toxicity. Anesthesiology136(4), 618-632:
  • Algera, M. H., Cotten, J. F., van Velzen, M., Niesters, M., Boon, M., Shoham, D. S., … & Dahan, A. (2022). Are thyrotropin‐releasing hormone (TRH) and analog taltirelin viable reversal agents of opioid‐induced respiratory depression?Pharmacology Research & Perspectives10(3), e00974:
  • Algera, M. H., Cotten, J. F., van Velzen, M., Niesters, M., Boon, M., Shoham, D. S., … & Dahan, A. (2022). Respiratory effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its analogue taltirelin on opioid-induced respiratory depressionBritish Journal of Anaesthesia, 129(1):e4-e6.:
  • Van Brug, H. E., Nelissen, R. G. H. H., Lijfering, W. M., Van Steenbergen, L. N., Rosendaal, F. R., Van Dorp, E. L. A., Bouvy, M. L., Dahan, A., & Gademan, M. G. J. (2022). Opioid prescribing patterns after arthroplasty of the knee and hip: a Dutch nationwide cohort study from 2013 to 2018. Acta orthopaedica, 93, 667–681.
  • Florian, J., van der Schrier, R., Gershuny, V., Davis, M. C., Wang, C., Han, X., Burkhart, K., Prentice, K., Shah, A., Racz, R., Patel, V., Matta, M., Ismaiel, O. A., Weaver, J., Boughner, R., Ford, K., Rouse, R., Stone, M., Sanabria, C., Dahan, A., … Strauss, D. G. (2022). Effect of Paroxetine or Quetiapine Combined With Oxycodone vs Oxycodone Alone on Ventilation During Hypercapnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 328(14), 1405–1414.
  • Nedergaard, R. B., Hansen, T. M., Mørch, C. D., Niesters, M., Dahan, A., & Drewes, A. M. (2022). Influence of tapentadol and oxycodone on the spinal cord and brain using electrophysiology: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 88(12), 5307–5316.


  • Pierce, M., van Amsterdam, J., Kalkman, G. A., Schellekens, A., & van den Brink, W. (2021). Is Europe facing an opioid crisis like the United States? An analysis of opioid use and related adverse effects in 19 European countries between 2010 and 2018European Psychiatry64(1):
  • Bedene, A., Strmljan, A., van Dorp, E. L., Udovič, M., Lijfering, W. M., Niesters, M., Rosendaal, F.R., Dahan, A., Fürst, J. (2021). Comparison of Two Different Analgesic Prescription Strategies and Healthcare Systems: Slovenia vs. the NetherlandsFrontiers in Pain Research, 55:
  • (Dutch article) Veldman, S. E., Vroon, L. C., Melis, E. J., van den Heuvel, S. A. S., Schellekens, A. F. A., & Kramers, C. (2021). Opioïden afbouwen in de eerstelijnszorg [Tapering of opioid use in primary care]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde165: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2021;165:D5657
  • Schellekens, A. F., Veldman, S. E., Suranto, E. S., van Rijswijk, S. M., van der Wal, S. E., Schene, A. H., & van Beek, M. H. (2021). Beneficial effects of opioid rotation to buprenorphine/naloxone on opioid misuse, craving, mental health, and pain control in chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid use disorder. Journal of clinical medicine10(16), 3727.:


  • Weesie, Y. M., Hek, K., Schermer, T. R., Schellevis, F. G., Leufkens, H. G., Rook, E. J., & van Dijk, L. (2020). Use of opioids increases with age in older adults: An observational study (2005–2017). Frontiers in Pharmacology11, 648:
  • Bedene, A., van Dorp, E. L., Faquih, T., Cannegieter, S. C., Mook-Kanamori, D. O., Niesters, M., Gademan, M.J., Rosendaal, F.R., Bouvy, M.L., Dahan, A., Lijfering, W. M. (2020). Causes and consequences of the opioid epidemic in the Netherlands: a population-based cohort study. Scientific reports10(1), 1-9:


  • Bedene, A., Lijfering, W. M., Niesters, M., van Velzen, M., Rosendaal, F. R., Bouvy, M. L., Dahan, A., van Dorp, E. L. (2019). Opioid prescription patterns and risk factors associated with opioid use in the Netherlands. JAMA network open2(8), e1910223-e1910223:
  • Kalkman, G. A., Kramers, C., van Dongen, R. T., van den Brink, W., & Schellekens, A. (2019). Trends in use and misuse of opioids in the Netherlands: a retrospective, multi-source database study. The Lancet Public Health4(10), e498-e505:
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